The paper discusses the idea of the dictatorship of the proletariat in philosophical and psychoanalytic framework. Proletariat, in Marxist-Leninist perspective, is the last class that has not only to destroy all other classes or the old society (bourgeoisie etc.), but also to destroy itself as a class. At the summit of its activity, when it holds not a constitutive, but rather a destitutive power, i.e., at the moment of its dictatorship, proletariat must find itself in a state very similar to Hegelian post-revolutionary “fury of destruction”. It is a figure of double negation; it transforms into a pure destruction in order to destroy the destruction itself. It is a figure of an extreme alienation that wants to have done with other general alienation. Being left alone, with no God, no Other, no Law, it fights against itself. His position towards history is not a melancholic, but a psychotic one. Taking it into account, the paper aims to contextualise the idea of “progressive psychosis” in modern historical subjectivity.